Saturday, March 14, 2020

International trade and Investments

International trade and Investments Introduction The following discussion focuses on IMF’s ECLAC’s effects on international trade and investments regarding the stages of economic development. These stages of economic growth are best analyzed using Rostow’s model that is characterized by five stages namely: traditional society, transitional stage, take off, drive to maturity, and high mass consumption. The stages of economic growth are affected by fiscal policy that is aimed at achieving macroeconomic stability, and possibly making some long term economic growth.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on International trade and Investments specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion International Monetary Fund (IMF) has some effects on international trade and investments regarding the stages of economic development in the sense that it supports fiscal deficits that are caused by monetary expansion in the increased government expen diture leading to balance-of –payment problems. The IMF through its structural adjustment programme reduces the balance-of-payment problems by eliminating both the balance of payment (BOP) and fiscal deficits, thus making the economy to remain stable (Anupam Krishna, 2002). In addition, the IMF structural adjustment programme promotes economic growth and reduces unemployment levels. Moreover, the IMF provides financial assistance to governments, and this promotes international trade, investments, economic growth and development (Anupam Krishna, 2002). The study of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) effects on international trade and investments regarding the stages of economic development I are also important for this discussion. The ECLAC often takes important decisions and implements viable policies that greatly affect both the economic and social developments (ECLAC, 2002). Through ECLAC’s efforts, significant international trade, investments and economic developments have been realized across the globe, transforming the traditional society stage of economic development to a more advanced manufacturing sector that is characterized by high mass consumption. In fact, ECLAC’s policies make it possible to realize significant growth in both income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) coupled with increase in international trade and investment portfolios. This sound macroeconomic management stabilizes exchange rate regimes and exchange rates (ECLAC, 2002).Advertising Looking for critical writing on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ECLAC provides strong economic platforms and structures for investing in human and financial resources at both the local and international levels. These well supported economic structures promote sustainable development. ECLAC in its position of leadership is capable of identifying emerging global tr ends in the economy that affect international trade and investments such as international economic and political issues (ECLAC, 2002). For instance, ECLAC links one different trading region with one another using its International Trade and Integration Division (ITID). And, through this linkage programme, it provides the trading partners with important information on opportunities and some challenges that affect international trade and investment. Importantly, ECLAC’s effects on international trade and investments regarding the stages of economic development can be seen in its effort to develop some joint strategies that aim at promoting trade and investments. In addition, ECLAC works together with other development partners on infrastructure, creativity and innovation. Finally, it provides sound policy frameworks on international dialogues and cooperation (ECLAC, 2002). Conclusion In summary, IMF’s ECLAC’s effects on international trade and investments regardi ng the stages of economic development are geared towards economic stability by eliminating balance-of-payment deficits, and this can be best achieved through the application of sound fiscal macroeconomic policies. The IMF has structural adjustment programme that makes it possible for governments to borrow funds for infrastructural developments and economic projects. On the other hand, ECLAC’s effects can be seen in its joint strategy formulation for promoting international trade and investments that encourage different stages of economic development. References Anupam, B. Krishna, S. (2002). Foreign direct investment in Africa. Washington, D.C: International Monetary Fund.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on International trade and Investments specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ECLAC (2002). Globalization and Development, Report for bi-annual session period, of ECLAC Brazilia. Retrieved from www.eclac.o rg/publicaciones/xml/5/10035/summaryINGLES.pdf

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

To what degree did air power contribute to the Allied victory at the Essay

To what degree did air power contribute to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein in 1942 - Essay Example The historical context of the onset of this battle is the pre-emptive attempt by Rommel to strike the Allied forces in Africa before they received massive reinforcements, thereby not letting their might swell to threatening proportions. This effort not only failed but backfired and the Panzers were caught in a catch-22 situation created by their misendeavour. The Allies, who managed to capitalise on this situation, kept the Afrika Korps in check for six weeks and then, when they were fully replenished, they launched an all-out offensive, engaging the enemy in a battle that was to change the course of WW2 west of the Suez. This gigantic war effort was implemented on a vast scale. The sheer numbers and the scale of logistics was mind boggling. When the Allies first retaliated against the Afrika Korps in August 1942, its strength was 200,000 men and 10,000 tanks, while that of the Afrika Korps was exactly its half. But logistics apart, Rommel was fighting a losing battle at El Alamein right from the beginning and had inherited several other strategic disadvantages which circumstances only aggravated. Notable amongst the major shortcomings... just to desert warfare tactics and erroneous planning at crucial junctures which cost a heavy body count and massive loss of armour and artillery machinery. The mention of these factors is aimed at providing credence to historian Niall Barr's main contention in his important book on the subject, Pendulum of War: Three Battles of El Alamein that the Allied victory in this battle was as much due to the enemy's shortcomings as it was due to its own strengths. "Rather than attribute British victory to any unique stratagem resulting from Montgomery's august appointment, Barr finds that it was the combination of circumstances and positional realities, along with the Allied ability to modify its tactics-an ability the Germans apparently did not share-that led to decisive victory on November 4" (Pendulum of War: Three Battles at El Alamein). Notably, Barr is also sparing in his praise for Montgomery and instead, gives more credence to the ground forces for the victory. The Battle, which began on August 30, 1942, and ended on November 4 the same year, was conceived by Montgomery in various phases, "Consisting of the break-in - October 23-24, the crumbling - October 24-25, the counter - October 26-28, Operation Supercharge - November 1-2 and the breakout - November 3-7" ("The Second Battle of El Alamein"). At various stages during the battle, the Allied aerial attack was requisitioned to play its role in the battle, either to provide air cover or to attack the ground forces of Afrika Korps. These air attacks are chronicled below. In an attempt to thwart the advance of the Allied army towards its stronghold, the Afrika Korps had planted one of the largest quantities of landmines in WW2, numbering around 500,000. This plantation had earned a dubious name of Devil's Gardens. These

Monday, February 10, 2020

No topic Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 16

No topic - Assignment Example Another wrong assumption is the relation of the Cuban missile crisis to with the Missiles being installed in Turkey. Sergei Khrushchev is of the view that it had no co relation to it and it was a total different event and affair in the context of global politics. Another wrong assumption, fear and beliefs are attributed to the Russian mindset. This is done so on the account of fact that Russians have always gone with a consistent mindset regarding thwarting their enemies if they reach your borders. The actual account was the fact that Russians decided to engage the Americans through installation of missiles in their neighborhood as the past had shown the United States of America enjoyed safety on account of its geography. A general perspective is presented in the form of how the governments undertake the threats. For example the 9-11 incident, the Sputnik were all brought about with specific goals which were part of the Cold War. Another mystery or miss assumption is clarified through the co relation to the 9-11 or the overall Missile Crisis as it was the first time that the American borders were faced with the direct threat. The information regarding Vietnam war and Cuba event gives an account of how the overall Cold war was engaged. It tells us of the nature of the war that lasted for over nearly five decades. It shows the peculiar nature of the war that was at hand for half a century. The case of Vietnam was an instance where a proxy war was fought and Vietnam was a smaller force to reckon with, yet it gave United states of America real tough time and making it its first defeat of the 20th century through the history (Kort, p .177). Secondly, the Cuban missiles crisis reveal the fragile nature of the global politics that was existent in those days. This gave rise to concepts and wise counsels stressing for reduction in the arms and bringing about agreements such

Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Rory Gilmore Reading List Essay Example for Free

The Rory Gilmore Reading List Essay The Rory Gilmore Reading Challenge: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay by Michael Chabon An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser Angela’s Ashes by Frank McCourt Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank Archidamian War by Donald Kagan The Art of Fiction by Henry James The Art of War by Sun Tzu As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner Atonement by Ian McEwan Autobiography of a Face by Lucy Grealy The Awakening by Kate Chopin Babe by Dick King-Smith. Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women by Susan Faludi Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie Bel Canto by Ann Patchett The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath Beloved by Toni Morrison Beowulf: A New Verse Translation by Seamus Heaney The Bhagava Gita The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Built a Village in the Forest, and Saved 1,200 Jews by Peter Duffy Bitch in Praise of Difficult Women by Elizabeth Wurtzel A Bolt from the Blue and Other Essays by Mary McCarthy Brave New World by Aldous Huxley Brick Lane by Monica Ali Bridgadoon by Alan Jay Lerner. Candide by Voltaire – read – June 2010 The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer Carrie by Stephen King Catch-22 by Joseph Heller The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger Charlotte’s Web by E. B. White The Children’s Hour by Lillian Hellman Christine by Stephen King A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess The Code of the Woosters by P. G. Wodehouse The Collected Short Stories by Eudora Welty The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty by Eudora Welty A Comedy of Errors by William Shakespeare Complete Novels by Dawn Powell The Complete Poems by Anne Sexton Complete Stories by Dorothy Parker. A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas Cousin Bette by Honor’e de Balzac Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky The Crimson Petal and the White by Michel Faber The Crucible by Arthur Miller Cujo by Stephen King The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon Daisy Miller by Henry James – read – 2013 Daughter of Fortune by Isabel Allende David and Lisa by Dr Theodore Issac Rubin M. D David Copperfield by Charles Dickens The Da Vinci -Code by Dan Brown – read Dead Souls by Nikolai Gogol Demons by Fyodor Dostoyevsky Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Deenie by Judy Blume The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America by Erik Larson The Dirt: Confessions of the World’s Most Notorious Rock Band by Tommy Lee, Vince Neil, Mick Mars and Nikki Sixx The Divine Comedy by Dante The Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood by Rebecca Wells Don Quijote by Cervantes Driving Miss Daisy by Alfred Uhrv Dr. Jekyll Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson Edgar Allan Poe: Complete Tales Poems by Edgar Allan Poe Eleanor Roosevelt by Blanche Wiesen Cook The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test by Tom Wolfe Ella Minnow Pea: A Novel in Letters by Mark Dunn. Eloise by Kay Thompson Emily the Strange by Roger Reger Emma by Jane Austen – read Empire Falls by Richard Russo Encyclopedia Brown: Boy Detective by Donald J. Sobol Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton Ethics by Spinoza Europe through the Back Door, 2003 by Rick Steves Eva Luna by Isabel Allende Everything Is Illuminated by Jonathan Safran Foer Extravagance by Gary Krist Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury – started and not finished Fahrenheit 9/11 by Michael Moore The Fall of the Athenian Empire by Donald Kagan Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in the World by Greg Critser Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas by Hunter S. Thompson The Fellowship of the Ring: Book 1 of The Lord of the Ring by J. R. R. Tolkien Fiddler on the Roof by Joseph Stein The Five People You Meet in Heaven by Mitch Albom Finnegan’s Wake by James Joyce Fletch by Gregory McDonald Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes The Fortress of Solitude by Jonathan Lethem The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Franny and Zooey by J. D. Salinger Freaky Friday by Mary Rodgers Galapagos by Kurt Vonnegut Gender Trouble by Judith Butler George W. Bushism: The Slate Book of the Accidental Wit and Wisdom of our 43rd President by Jacob Weisberg Gidget by Fredrick Kohner. Girl, Interrupted by Susanna Kaysen The Gnostic Gospels by Elaine Pagels The Godfather: Book 1 by Mario Puzo The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy – started and not finished Goldilocks and the Three Bears by Alvin Granowsky Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell The Good Soldier by Ford Maddox Ford The Gospel According to Judy Bloom The Graduate by Charles Webb The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Great Expectations by Charles Dickens The Group by Mary McCarthy Hamlet by William Shakespeare Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by J. K. Rowling Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J. K. Rowling A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius by Dave Eggers Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders by Vincent Bugliosi and Curt Gentry (TBR) Henry IV, part I by William Shakespeare Henry IV, part II by William Shakespeare Henry V by William Shakespeare High Fidelity by Nick Hornby The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon Holidays on Ice: Stories by David Sedaris The Holy Barbarians by Lawrence Lipton House of Sand and Fog by Andre Dubus III (Lpr). The House of the Spirits by Isabel Allende How to Breathe Underwater by Julie Orringer How the Grinch Stole Christmas by Dr. Seuss How the Light Gets in by M. J. Hyland Howl by Allen Gingsburg The Hunchback of Notre Dame by Victor Hugo The Iliad by Homer I’m with the Band by Pamela des Barres In Cold Blood by Truman Capote Inherit the Wind by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Iron Weed by William J. Kennedy It Takes a Village by Hillary Clinton Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare The Jumping Frog by Mark Twain The Jungle by Upton Sinclair. Just a Couple of Days by Tony Vigorito The Kitchen Boy: A Novel of the Last Tsar by Robert Alexander The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini Lady Chatterleys’ Lover by D. H. Lawrence The Last Empire: Essays 1992-2000 by Gore Vidal Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman The Legend of Bagger Vance by Steven Pressfield Less Than Zero by Bret Easton Ellis Letters to a Young Poet by Rainer Maria Rilke Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them by Al Franken Life of Pi by Yann Martel The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens The Little Locksmith by Katharine Butler Hathaway. The Little Match Girl by Hans Christian Andersen Little Women by Louisa May Alcott Living History by Hillary Rodham Clinton Lord of the Flies by William Golding The Lottery: And Other Stories by Shirley Jackson The Lovely Bones by Alice Sebold The Love Story by Erich Segal Macbeth by William Shakespeare Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert The Manticore by Robertson Davies Marathon Man by William Goldman The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter by Simone de Beauvoir Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman by William Tecumseh Sherman Me Talk Pretty One Day by David Sedaris. The Meaning of Consuelo by Judith Ortiz Cofer Mencken’s Chrestomathy by H. R. Mencken The Merry Wives of Windsro by William Shakespeare The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides The Miracle Worker by William Gibson Moby Dick by Herman Melville The Mojo Collection: The Ultimate Music Companion by Jim Irvin Moliere: A Biography by Hobart Chatfield Taylor A Monetary History of the United States by Milton Friedman Monsieur Proust by Celeste Albaret A Month Of Sundays: Searching For The Spirit And My Sister by Julie Mars A Moveable Feast by Ernest Hemingway Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf Mutiny on the Bounty by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall My Lai 4: A Report on the Massacre and It’s Aftermath by Seymour M. Hersh My Life as Author and Editor by H. R. Mencken My Life in Orange: Growing Up with the Guru by Tim Guest My Sister’s Keeper by Jodi Picoult – read The Naked and the Dead by Norman Mailer The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri The Nanny Diaries by Emma McLaughlin Nervous System: Or, Losing My Mind in Literature by Jan Lars Jensen New Poems of Emily Dickinson by Emily Dickinson The New Way Things Work by David Macaulay. Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich Night by Elie Wiesel Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen – read The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism by William E. Cain, Laurie A. Finke, Barbara E. Johnson, John P. McGowan Novels 1930-1942: Dance Night/Come Back to Sorrento, Turn, Magic Wheel/Angels on Toast/A Time to be Born by Dawn Powell Notes of a Dirty Old Man by Charles Bukowski Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Old School by Tobias Wolff Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens On the Road by Jack Kerouac One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch by Alexander Solzhenitsyn One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez The Opposite of Fate: Memories of a Writing Life by Amy Tan Oracle Night by Paul Auster Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood Othello by Shakespeare – read Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War by Donald Kagan Out of Africa by Isac Dineson The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton A Passage to India by E. M. Forster The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition by Donald Kagan The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky Peyton Place by Grace Metalious The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde Pigs at the Trough by Arianna Huffington. Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain The Polysyllabic Spree by Nick Hornby – read The Portable Dorothy Parker by Dorothy Parker The Portable Nietzche by Fredrich Nietzche The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O’Neill by Ron Suskind Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen Property by Valerie Martin Pushkin: A Biography by T. J. Binyon Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw Quattrocento by James Mckean A Quiet Storm by Rachel Howzell Hall Rapunzel by Grimm Brothers – read The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe. The Razor’s Edge by W. Somerset Maugham Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books by Azar Nafisi Rebecca by Daphne du Maurier Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm by Kate Douglas Wiggin The Red Tent by Anita Diamant Rescuing Patty Hearst: Memories From a Decade Gone Mad by Virginia Holman The Return of the King: The Lord of the Rings Book 3 by J. R. R. Tolkien R Is for Ricochet by Sue Grafton Rita Hayworth by Stephen King Robert’s Rules of Order by Henry Robert Roman Fever by Edith Wharton Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare A Room of One’s Own by Virginia Woolf A Room with a View by E. M. Forster Rosemary’s Baby by Ira Levin Sacred Time by Ursula Hegi Sanctuary by William Faulkner Savage Beauty: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay by Nancy Milford The Scarecrow of Oz by Frank L. Baum The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne Seabiscuit: An American Legend by Laura Hillenbrand The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir The Secret Life of Bees by Sue Monk Kidd Secrets of the Flesh: A Life of Colette by Judith Thurman Selected Letters of Dawn Powell: 1913-1965 by Dawn Powell Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen A Separate Peace by John Knowles Several Biographies of Winston Churchill. Sexus by Henry Miller The Shadow of the Wind by Carlos Ruiz Zafon Shane by Jack Shaefer The Shining by Stephen King Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse S Is for Silence by Sue Grafton Slaughter-house Five by Kurt Vonnegut Small Island by Andrea Levy – on my book pile Snows of Kilimanjaro by Ernest Hemingway Snow White and Rose Red by Grimm Brothers Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World by Barrington Moore The Song of Names by Norman Lebrecht Song of the Simple Truth: The Complete Poems of Julia de Burgos by Julia de Burgos The Song Reader by Lisa Tucker. Songbook by Nick Hornby The Sonnets by William Shakespeare Sonnets from the Portuegese by Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sophie’s Choice by William Styron The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner Speak, Memory by Vladimir Nabokov Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers by Mary Roach The Story of My Life by Helen Keller A Streetcar Named Desiree by Tennessee Williams Stuart Little by E. B. White Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway Swann’s Way by Marcel Proust Swimming with Giants: My Encounters with Whales, Dolphins and Seals by Anne Collett Sybil by Flora Rheta Schreiber. A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Tender Is The Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald Term of Endearment by Larry McMurtry Time and Again by Jack Finney The Time Traveler’s Wife by Audrey Niffenegger To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee The Tragedy of Richard III by William Shakespeare A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith The Trial by Franz Kafka The True and Outstanding Adventures of the Hunt Sisters by Elisabeth Robinson Truth Beauty: A Friendship by Ann Patchett Tuesdays with Morrie by Mitch Albom – read Ulysses by James Joyce. The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath 1950-1962 by Sylvia Plath Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe – started and not finished Unless by Carol Shields Valley of the Dolls by Jacqueline Susann The Vanishing Newspaper by Philip Meyers Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray – read Velvet Underground’s The Velvet Underground and Nico (Thirty Three and a Third series) by Joe Harvard The Virgin Suicides by Jeffrey Eugenides Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett Walden by Henry David Thoreau Walt Disney’s Bambi by Felix Salten War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy. We Owe You Nothing – Punk Planet: The Collected Interviews edited by Daniel Sinker What Colour is Your Parachute? 2005 by Richard Nelson Bolles What Happened to Baby Jane by Henry Farrell When the Emperor Was Divine by Julie Otsuka Who Moved My Cheese? Spencer Johnson Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf by Edward Albee – read Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West by Gregory Maguire The Wizard of Oz by Frank L. Baum Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte The Yearling by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings The Year of Magical Thinking by Joan Didion A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

lewinsky :: essays research papers

Results May Vary This product advertisement, for thumbuterol, the fat burner, begins to mislead the reader from the very beginning. The ad came from a very popular men’s magazine, Maxim, and is targeted directly at young males. It is intended to mislead the reader that it is a factual article, and not an advertisement at all, just from the look of the ad. The article uses headings and title fonts, similar to all of the other article in the magazine. This tricks the reader into starting to read the article without even considering that it is an ad, in hopes they will be taken in by all of their empty promises. From the very beginning the article plays on one of societies biggest weaknesses, that being their self image. Everyone wants to look different in some way, and most people would love to be thinner. The title, â€Å"A Killer Bod In Time For Summer†, misleads people into believeing that they will be able to get into shape fast in no time at all. It also plays on peoples weakness of self-image by conjuring up images of the beach in the readers mind. It does this by mentioning the summer and showing pictures of women in bathing suits. The article also plays on socities laziness by promising quick results with no work. This article also seems to use very sneaky rhetoric and invites the reader to reason fallaciously. The article seems to â€Å"guarantee† that the product burns pounds and shrinks inches in the beginning of the article, but no where else in the article does it mention this guarantee. The ad also states that it was reported by an AP senior nutrition expert, but it fails to make any mention of his name or even what AP stands for. By looking more closely at the article I conclude that AP stands for Alternative Pharmaceuticals, the company who is selling the product, and the reader is then left to question the credibility of the companies own experts. The ad also uses fine print to state that results may vary, and the fine print then goes on to state that the product has not even been reviewed by the FDA. The ad also uses big words to confuse the reder, such asmentioning that one of the main ingredients is Guggulsterone, derived from the bark of a tree in India. Cleverly disquising the fact that all they are trying to sell you is ground up tree bark.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Agroforestry Research Essay

Agroforestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land-use systems.[1] A narrow definition of agroforestry is â€Å"trees on farms.† As a science The theoretical base for agroforestry comes from ecology, via agroecology.[3] From this perspective, agroforestry is one of the three principal land-use sciences. The other two are agriculture and forestry.[4] The efficiency of photosynthesis drops off with increasing light intensity, and the rate of photosynthesis hardly increases once the light intensity is over about one tenth that of direct overhead sun. This means that plants under trees can still grow well even though they get less light. By having more than one level of vegetation, it is possible to get more photosynthesis than with a single layer. Agroforestry has a lot in common with intercropping. Both have two or more plant species (such as nitrogen-fixing plants) in close interaction, both provide multiple outputs, as a consequence, higher overall yields and, because a single application or input is shared, costs are reduced. Beyond these, there are gains specific to agroforestry. Benefits Further information: Ecoscaping Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural and forest production methods. They can offer increased productivity, economic benefits, and more diversity in the ecological goods and services provided.[5] Biodiversity in agroforestry systems is typically higher than in conventional agricultural systems. With two or more interacting plant species in a given land area, it creates a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of birds, insects, and other animals. Depending upon the application, potential impacts of agroforestry can include: †¢Reducing poverty through increased production of wood and other tree products for home consumption and sale †¢Contributing to food security by restoring the soil fertility for food crops †¢Cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil runoff †¢Countering global warming and the risk of hunger by increasing the number of drought-resistant trees and the subsequent production of fruits, nuts and edible oils †¢Reducing deforestation and pressure on woodlands by providing farm-grown fuelwood †¢Reducing or eliminating the need for toxic chemicals (insecticides, herbicides, etc.) †¢Through more diverse farm outputs, improved human nutrition †¢In situations where people have limited access to mainstream medicines, providing growing space for medicinal plants Agroforestry practices may also realize a number of other associated environmental goals, such as: †¢Carbon sequestration †¢Odour, dust, and noise reduction †¢Green space and visual aesthetics †¢Enhancement or maintenance of wildlife habitat Adaptation to Climate Change There is some evidence that, especially in recent years, poor smallholder farmers are turning to agroforestry as a mean to adapt to the impacts of climate change. A study from the CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) found from a survey of over 700 households in East Africa that at least 50% of those households had begun planting trees on their farms in a change from their practices 10 years ago.[6] The trees ameliorate the effects of climate change by helping to stabilize erosion, improving water and soil quality and providing yields of fruit, tea, coffee, oil, fodder and medicinal products in addition to their usual harvest. Agroforestry was one of the most widely adopted adaptation strategies in the study, along with the use of improved crop varieties and intercropping.[6] Applications Agroforestry represents a wide diversity in application and in practice. One listing includes over 40 distinct uses.[3] The 40 or so applications can be roughly classified under a few broad headings. There are visual similarities between practices in different categories. This is expected as categorization is based around the problems addressed (countering winds, high rainfall, harmful insects, etc.) and the overall economic constraints and objectives (labor and other inputs costs, yield requirements, etc.). The categories include : †¢Parklands †¢Shade systems †¢Crop-over-tree systems †¢Alley cropping †¢Strip cropping †¢Fauna-based systems †¢Boundary systems †¢Taungyas †¢Physical support systems †¢Agroforests. Parkland Parklands are visually defined by the presence of trees widely scattered over a large agricultural plot or pasture. The trees are usually of a single species with clear regional favorites. Among the benefits, the trees offer shade to grazing animals, protect crops against strong wind bursts, provide tree prunings for firewood, and are a roost for insect or rodent-eating birds. There are other gains. Research with Faidherbia albida in Zambia showed that mature trees can sustain maize yields of 4.1 tonnes per hectare compared to 1.3 tonnes per hectare without these trees. Unlike other trees, Faidherbia sheds its nitrogen-rich leaves during the rainy crop growing season so it does not compete with the crop for light, nutrients and water. The leaves then regrow during the dry season and provide land cover and shade for crops.[7] Shade systems With shade applications, crops are purposely raised under tree canopies and within the resulting shady environment. For most uses, the understory crops are shade tolerant or the overstory trees have fairly open canopies. A conspicuous example is shade-grown coffee. This practice reduces weeding costs and increases the quality and taste of the coffee.[8][9] Crop-over-tree systems Not commonly encountered, crop-over-tree systems employ woody perennials in the role of a cover crop. For this, small shrubs or trees pruned to near ground level are utilized. The purpose, as with any cover crop, is to increase in-soil nutrients and/or to reduce soil erosion. Alley cropping With alley cropping, crop strips alternate with rows of closely spaced tree or hedge species. Normally, the trees are pruned before planting the crop. The cut leafy material is spread over the crop area to provide nutrients for the crop. In addition to nutrients, the hedges serve as windbreaks and eliminate soil erosion. Alley cropping has been shown to be advantagous in Africa, particularly in relation to improving maize yields in the sub-Saharan region. Use here relies upon the nitrogen fixing tree species Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii, Gliricidia sepium and Faidherbia albida. In one example, a ten-year experiment in Malawi showed that, by using fertilizer trees such as Tephrosia vogelii and Gliricidia sepium, maize yields averaged 3.7 tonnes per hectare as compared to one tonne per hectare in plots without fertilizer trees or mineral fertilizer.[10] Strip cropping Strip cropping is similar to alley cropping in that trees alternate with crops. The difference is that, with alley cropping, the trees are in single row. With strip cropping, the trees or shrubs are planted in wide strip. The purpose can be, as with alley cropping, to provide nutrients, in leaf form, to the crop. With strip cropping, the trees can have a purely productive role, providing fruits, nuts, etc. while, at the same time, protecting nearby crops from soil erosion and harmful winds. Fauna-based systems Silvopasture over the years (Australia). There are situations where trees benefit fauna. The most common examples are the silvopasture where cattle, goats, or sheep browse on grasses grown under trees.[11] In hot climates, the animals are less stressed and put on weight faster when grazing in a cooler, shaded environment. Other variations have these animals directly eating the leaves of trees or shrubs. There are similar systems for other types of fauna. Deer and hogs gain when living and feeding in a forest ecosystem, especially when the tree forage suits their dietary needs. Another variation, aquaforestry, is where trees shade fish ponds. In many cases, the fish eat the leaves or fruit from the trees. Boundary systems A riparian buffer bordering a river in Iowa. The are a number of applications that fall under the heading of a boundary system. These include the living fences, the riparian buffer, and windbreaks. †¢A living fence can be a thick hedge or fencing wire strung on living trees. In addition to restricting the movement of people and animals, living fences offer habitat to insect-eating birds and, in the case of a boundary hedge, slow soil erosion. †¢Riparian buffers are strips of permanent vegetation located along or near active watercourses or in ditches where water runoff concentrates. The purpose is to keep nutrients and soil from contaminating surface water. †¢Windbreaks reduce the velocity of the winds over and around crops. This increases yields through reduced drying of the crop and/or by preventing the crop from toppling in strong wind gusts. Taungyas Taungya is a system originating in Burma. In the initial stages of an orchard or tree plantation, the trees are small and widely spaced. The free space between the newly planted trees can accommodate a seasonal crop. Instead of costly weeding, the underutilized area provides an additional output and income. More complex taungyas use the between-tree space for a series of crops. The crops become more shade resistant as the tree canopies grow and the amount of sunlight reaching the ground declines. If a plantation is thinned in the latter stages, this opens further the between-tree cropping opportunities. Physical support systems In the long history of agriculture, trellises are comparatively recent. Before this, grapes and other vine crops were raised atop pruned trees. Variations of the physical support theme depend upon the type of vine. The advantages come through greater in-field biodiversity. In many cases, the control of weeds, diseases, and insect pests are a primary motive. Agroforests These are widely found in the humid tropics and are referenced by different names (forest gardening, forest farming, tropical home gardens and, where short-statured trees or shrubs dominate, shrub gardens). Agroforests, in many ways, epitomize agroforestry. Through a complex, disarrayed mix of trees, shrubs, vines, and seasonal crops, these systems, through their high levels of biodiversity, achieve the ecological dynamics of a forest ecosystem. Because of the internal ecology, they tend to be less susceptible to harmful insects, plant diseases, drought, and wind damage. Although they can be high yielding, complex systems tend to produce a large number of outputs. These are not utilized when a large volume of a single crop or output is required.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Trouble at City Zoo Case Study Essay - 3708 Words

Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Inventory of facts/findings 3 Organization’s Background 4 Statement of Problems 5 Analysis of Causes 6 Theory Application 8 Proposed Solution(s) 9 Recommendations/Suggestions for Future 13 Conclusion 15 Works cited 16 Team Charter 17 Swot, Mind map, Rational Decision Making Model and Brainstorm 20 Executive Summary This paper reviews and analyzes three main issues with the first one being leadership. Other sub-issues involve lack of vision, coercive leadership style, using taxpayer’s money for personal benefit and irresponsible top management. The organizational structure, mixed communication, and no clear indication to who to report to is the second. The third†¦show more content†¦Our goal is to help the New Executive Director Emma Breslin restore community trust, help boost employee morale by creating unity and establishing a team environment by developing a strategic plan. Inventory of facts/findings Leadership was the main issue within the city zoo with its coercive power William (Bill) Lau, as one of the boards meeting minutes showed that the board discussed â€Å"open warfare† between mangers; backbiting and rude behaviour during meetings †¦ which signifies major leadership issues. Everything seems to be in complete chaos minutes also reported that â€Å"working with Bill is experienced by some as difficult, intimidating, or scary.† Another major problem is the City Zoo’s organizational structure when referring to it Xavier Tolson, a human resource consultant said â€Å"I do not believe I have ever seen a department as dysfunctional†. Organization’s Background The City Zoo is a private non-profitable, volunteer and professional service organization, started in 1905 when â€Å"Samantha Fresaer donated a hedgehog to the city park† when it was run by the City itself, until the year 1982 the ownership has been transferred to the Zoological Society. 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